Himalayan Balsam: Cause or Associate of Soil Erosion?

Himalayan Balsam
Himalayan balsam was introduced as an ornamental plant and has now become a widespread invasive plant (© Stacey Newman)

Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) is a non-native annual plant that was introduced into parts of Europe during the mid-nineteenth century as an ornamental plant for parks and gardens.

This plant species was first recognised as an invasive species and a threat to ecological stability in the 1930’s. However, since then the problem has escalated and is now of international concern, due to its negative impact on ecosystem biodiversity. This is primarily due to its ability to out-compete and overcrowd native vegetation. Himalayan balsam has now naturalised in many countries, resulting in a shift in management strategies from attempting to remove the invasive plant, to limiting its territory and further spread.

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Invasive plants to devastate annual wildebeest migration

serengetiAccording to new research, scientists found that a number of invasive alien plant species initially introduced as ornamental plants at tourism facilities are now spreading rapidly throughout the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem, posing a major threat to wildlife, including the annual wildebeest and zebra migration as well as a range of other plant and animal species. Continue reading

A fifth of the world’s plants under threat, as report says 391,000 species now known to science

Dave Simpson – 11 May 2016

A ground-breaking report from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has produced an estimate of the number of plants known to science. By searching through existing databases, the researchers have estimated that there are now 390,900 known plant species, of which around 369,400 are flowering plants. But this figure is only those species currently documented: new species are being discovered all the time, including over 2000 in 2015 alone. But more worryingly, it is suggested that 21% of plant species are under threat, from a range of pressures including climate change, habitat loss and invasive species. The invasive species component of the report, which draws heavily on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium, says that nearly 5,000 plant species are documented as invasive, from over 13,000 vascular plant species naturalised outside their native range.

Prof Kathy Willis, director of science at RBG Kew, said: “It’s really important to know how many plant species there are, where they are and the relationship between the groups, because plants are absolutely fundamental to our well-being”

And on invasive species, the head of conservation science at Kew, Dr Colin Clubbe, said that invasive species are one of the biggest challenges for biodiversity. Quantifying the number of species regarded as invasive is a key step towards addressing the problem. “Now that we’ve got this list and this number, it’s certainly a bit like know your enemy,” said Dr Clubbe.


Japanese knotweed, a major invasive
“We know what we are dealing with, we can then look at them, and see what’s similar, what makes a good invasive, and then see how we can use that information to have better management practices in place or recommendations for how you deal with them.”

Trade, plant collecting, and movement of people, has led to at least 13,168 species of vascular plants becoming naturalised outside their native range. The report says that they become classed as invasives once they start to compete with native vegetation and spread to a degree that causes damage to the environment, the human economy or human health. The effects on livelihoods, and on ecosystem services such as agriculture, forestry, water and pollinators, can be staggering: the Kew report cites one study as estimating the total costs from all invasive species as nearly 5% of the world economy, and it also quotes CABI research which estimated the impact on the British economy alone as around £1.7 billion every year. Japanese knotweed, one of the most invasive plants in the UK, costs Great Britain over £165 million annually to control.

The Kew report synthesizes invasive species data from the open-access CABI Invasive Species Compendium, the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), global reviews of invasive trees and shrubs by Rejmánek and Richardson, and Weber’s Invasive Plant Species of the World: a Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds published by CABI in 2003. CABI’s ISC – flagged in the report as “the most comprehensive web-based resource” – has datasheets for 4,841 of the total of 4979 invasive vascular plants in Kew’s consolidated list.

Identifying other threats to plant biodiversity, the report says that farming is the biggest extinction threat, representing 31% of total risk to plants. Logging and the gathering of plants from the wild is responsible for 21.3% of the risk, followed by construction work with 12.8%. The report said that some 1,771 areas of the world have been identified as “important plant areas” but very few have conservation protection measures in place.

Highlighting just how many plant species are already important to humans, the report says that some 17,810 plant species have a medical use, 5,538 are eaten, 3,649 become animal feed and 1,621 are used for fuels. Over 11,000 plant species are used for materials, for example fibres and timber.

“[Plants] provide us with our food, our fuel, our medicines – even controlling our climate” says Professor Willis.

The report can be downloaded in full, or data from individual sections accessed, at the website stateoftheworldplants.com. A symposium on the report is being held at Kew on 11-12 May. Moving forward, the global assessment will now be carried out annually, allowing scientists to monitor how plants are changing over time.

New in November and December 2015 from the ISC

In November and December 2015 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc.

By peganum from Henfield, England (Cotoneaster horizontalis) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
1. Cotoneaster horizontalis
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray)

C. horizontalis is a woody, perennial, deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub with horizontally spreading branches, native to parts of China. It is an attractive garden plant with bright red berries which is the main cause for its widespread introduction across the world. In addition to keen gardeners, seeds of this plant are spread easily by birds. Unfortunately, it invades chalk grasslands (such as those of the South Downs in the UK), reducing species richness and diversity.

By Liné1 (Picture taken with my IXUS 800 IS) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
2. Cyperus papyrus
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus)

C. papyrus is a tall (up to 5 m), fast-growing, aquatic perennial sedge native to North Africa, well-known as being a source material for the making of paper (papyrus). Plumes of thread-like stems at the top of the plant make it particularly attractive and have resulted in its use as an ornamental plant and consequently its introduction to other countries. It can anchor itself in water via shallow roots or floats freely in clumps, facilitating its spread. The dense and extensive stands it can form can impede the flow of waterways and displace native species. It can reduce the amount of light that reaches submerged plants and can impact on habitats of wetland bird species.

Myroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam)

M. balsamum is a large tree of tropical America (40-45 m tall and 1 m wide) which produces lots of small whitish flowers and winged seedpods. Providing valuable timber and balsam resin, it has been widely introduced. It can form dense stands and can therefore outcompete native species by shading them. Characteristics which make it such a strong competitor include its large size, capacity for prolific seed production and ability to tolerate a wide range of light conditions. It is particularly problematic in Sri Lanka where native species can tolerate less varied light conditions and where natural enemies, such as diseases and insects, are absent.

By Meneerke bloem (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
3. Persicaria wallichii
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed)

P. wallichii is a shrubby perennial herb that originates from the temperate western regions of Asia and the Indian subcontinent. It is reported as invasive in its native range of India and its non-native range of Belgium and the UK. In the USA, it can promote the erosion of river banks where it pushes out native stabilizing species, colonizes large areas, but then dies back in the winter. Furthermore, the dense mats of leaf litter it produces can prevent the germination of native species. It can compete for resources with trees and reduce shade along rivers and streams by displacing native woody species.

Roystonea oleracea
4. Roystonea oleracea

Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)

R. oleracea is a palm that grows up to 40 m tall, with a distinctive, solitary, light grey, erect, cylindrical trunk. It is native to the Lesser Antilles, northern South America and Guatemala. This invasive species has been widely introduced for ornamental and landscaping purposes. It tends to be invasive in or near wetlands and can reduce diversity in areas where it becomes dominant. The dropping of large leaves and reproductive parts, which alter light intensity and humidity, have been proposed as possible reasons for these impacts. It is reported to be invasive in the swamps of the Guiana shield countries, in Panama and in the Atlantic forests of southern Brazil.

By Frank Vincentz (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
5. Urtica dioica
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle)

U. diocia is a weedy species which, as many people know from experience, has hairs which can cause an itchy sting when touched. It occurs in pastures and grasslands in monospecific clumps which can take up considerable space and thus reduce hay yields and the amount of grass available. It is normally avoided by livestock, therefore restricting their free movement. In some circumstances it can be very hard to eradicate because of its large root mass which allows it to spread vegetatively once it has established.

Other new datasheets published in November and December include:

Acacia glauca (wild dividivi)
Argemone ochroleuca (Mexican poppy)
Canine distemper virus
Centella asiatica (asiatic pennywort)
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug)
Flacourtia indica (governor’s plum)
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed)
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia)
Xyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)

Figure references:

  1. Cotoneaster horizontalis by peganum from Henfield, England (Cotoneaster horizontalis) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  2. Cyperus papyrus by By Liné1 (Picture taken with my IXUS 800 IS) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  3. Persicaria wallichii by By Meneerke bloem (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  4. Roystonea oleracea by By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  5. Urtica dioica by By Meneerke bloem (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons


Green Invasion: Destroying Livelihoods in Africa [Video]

CABI, together with Tmax Productions, have produced a video called the ‘Green Invasion – Destroying Livelihoods in Africa.” The short film (approx. 7mins long) details how invasive weeds are impacting on the lives of rural communities in East Africa.

Although a large number of non-native species have become invasive in the region, this film focusses on four of the most problematic species namely Chromolaena odorata (Devil weed), Parthenium hysterophorus (famine weed), Prosopis juliflora (Mathenge) and Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear). The excellent footage shows the extent of  weed infestations with accounts from community members on how these invasive plants are destroying the natural resource base on which they depend. It is clear that invasive weeds are destroying traditions, cultures and a way of life for millions of people on the continent.

However, all is not lost. The film notes that if effective management programmes are implemented, including biological control, we can make a difference to many people’s lives.

Although of general interest, the film is intended to raise the profile of invasive species and their impacts on livelihoods amongst donors and governments. We need them to take action and provide support for initiatives to manage one of the biggest threats to economic development on the planet.

Arne Witt
CABI Regional Coordinator, Invasives (Africa & Asia)